Part 1.2. Gives a very brief history of philosophy from the ‘birth of philosophy’ in Ancient Greece through the rise of Christianity in Europe in the Middle Ages through to the Renaissance, the Reformation and the birth of the Modern Period.
Part 2.1. A brief recap on the first lecture describing how Aristotle’s view of the universe, dominant throughout the middle ages in Europe, came to be gradually phased out by a modern, mechanistic view of the universe.
Part 2.2. A brief introduction to Thomas Hobbes, ‘The Monster of Malmsbury’, his views on a mechanistic universe, his strong ideas on determinism and his pessimistic view of human nature: ‘The life of man is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short’.
Part 2.4. Introduction to the philosophy of John Locke, ‘England’s first Empiricist’, he also gives a very simplistic definition of Empiricism; we obtain knowledge through experience of the world, through sensory data (what we see, hear, etc).
Part 5.3. The difference between internalist and externalist accounts of knowledge; whether we need external factors to justify knowledge or whether internal accounts are sufficient, and the Gettier cases.
Part 6.2. Explores Berkeley’s and Locke’s arguments concerning the resemblance of qualities and objects; that the perceived qualities of objects exist only in the mind or whether secondary qualities are intrinsically part of the object.
Part 6.4. A brief overview of contemporary accounts of perception; including phenomenalism (that objects are logical constructions from sense data) and direct realism (that we perceive objects and the external world directly).
Part 7.1. Explores the problem of free will and the ideas of moral responsibility, determinism and choice; the need for a concept of freedom to allow free choice, the problems associated with this and asking whether we really have freedom of choice.
Part 8.3. Criticisms of Locke’s view of personal identity; if personal identity is dependent on memory then how does forgetting personal history and the concept of false memory change Locke’s view of personal identity.